IoT is the concept of connecting any device to the Internet and to other connected devices and it is a giant network of connected things and people.
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What is the Internet of Things?
The Internet of Things is the concept of connecting any device to the Internet and to other connected devices. It enables a giant network of connected things and people. In the last decade, the IoT market exploded due to the introduction of novel wireless communication standards such as LPWAN.
What is LPWAN?
Low-power WAN (LPWAN) is a wireless wide area network technology that interconnects low-bandwidth, battery-powered devices with low bit rates over long ranges. LPWANs can accommodate packet sizes from 10 to 1,000 bytes at uplink speeds up to 200 Kbps. LPWAN’s long range varies from 2 km to 1,000 km, depending on the technology. Typical LPWAN technologies in the unlicensed band (ISM) include LoRaWAN, Sigfox and Mioty. In the licensed band, LPWAN standards such as NB-IoT and CAT-M1 have been introduced.
What is LoRaWAN?
LoRa is a wireless modulation technique derived from Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) technology developed and provided by Semtech. It encodes information on radio waves using chirp pulses. The LoRaWAN protocol is maintained by the LoRa Alliance.
What is Mioty?
Based on Fraunhofer’s patented telegram splitting technology, Mioty delivers a breakthrough in scalability and reliability for large industrial and commercial IoT deployments. As defined by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI TS 103 357), Telegram Splitting splits the data packets to be transported in the data stream into small sub-packets at the sensor level. These sub-packets are then transmitted over different frequencies and time. An algorithm in the base station permanently scans the spectrum for mioty sub-packets and reassembles them into a complete message. Due to sophisticated Forward Error Correction (FEC), the receiver only needs 50% of the radio bursts in order to completely reconstruct the information. This reduces the impact of corrupted or lost bursts due to collisions and increases the resistance to interference. The Mioty protocol is maintained by the Mioty Alliance.
IoT is transformative and will impact all known industries
The IoT ecosystem will impact the following industry sectors:
IoT applications allow for the control of Intelligent Buildings and Home systems: facility-automation and monitoring for building systems (HVAC, lighting, elevators, smoke alarms, fire extinguishers), building utilization, and security (room use, access, surveillance). This enables rational resource usage and saves valuable resources for the future.
IoT technology in the form of sensors records various indicators of soil conditions: moisture, plant nutrition, temperature, etc. Now there is no need to go around entire fields to control crops as the work can be done with smart systems and products. IoT use cases in agriculture include precision farming, livestock monitoring, irrigation control and automated drones for farm surveys, field mapping, crop spraying, and more.
Smart city solutions examples such as smart parking, noise mapping, smart lighting control, etc. will be extremely useful. These applications are under development, but their implementation is inevitable, because the prospects for public safety, air pollution monitoring, and optimisation of city traffic, especially in metropolitan areas, are enormous. Therefore the Smart City IoT applications are a fast-growing and very promising industry.
Industrial IoT (Industry 4.0)
Among the best examples of IoT applications in the industry are all kinds of sensors, software systems, and big data analytics for operations management and control in the shop-floor or remote production processes. Smart machines improve productivity and correct common human errors, especially those related to quality control and sustainability.
Top IoT applications track and shape supply chains in real time to help businesses make informed decisions and prevent shortages. Accurately tracking the availability of goods at a remote warehouse, based on the order or current demand, IoT applications automatically generate the best delivery or exchange operation scheme that is convenient for all interested parties. At the same time, the minimum need for labor is achieved and, as a result, the best economic effect of logistics in general.
The energy sector, which will grow by 40% in the next 25 years, requires a particularly painstaking approach to the design and organization of electrical networks. Thus, by collecting data on the time and nature of consumption, IoT applications analyze the processes of electricity circulation between suppliers and consumers, automatically optimize the use of resources, and improve their delivery parameters.
IoT use cases in medicine are changing the treatment of patients, tracking their condition and collecting vital information. Such solutions provide data on the current state of the patient, monitor their changes, and automatically warn of potential problems before they become critical. Data analysis using devices is aimed at improving the diagnosis of patients’ conditions. Constant monitoring of patients allows doctors to have a holistic and relevant picture of a patient’s wellbeing.
Already, we can use smart cars equipped with countless sensors and an internet connection to guarantee us maximum comfort. Other IoT use cases include remote control of doors and garage temperatures. Moreover, smart cars can independently assess the situation on a road and correct a car’s route without human intervention. They can also be used to update maps and assess traffic situations.